Epimenides of Knossos: The Origins of Western Esotericism

Epimenides of Knossos: The Origins of Western Esotericism

In the annals of Ancient History, as it relates to the origins of Western Philosophy, Esotericism, and Secret Societies, one man stands at the forefront as being one of the founders. That man was Epimenides of Knossos from the island of Crete who lived in approximately the 7th or 6th century BCE.

For hundreds of years, Epimenides was one of the most famous ancient philosophers predating the great giants of Western philosophy such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, all of whom drew inspiration from his writings. (1) Throughout history, his stories and teachings have been passed down to us by some of the greatest philosophers who have ever lived, leaving an indelible mark on the culture and philosophy of ancient Greece and the whole Western world.

Over the course of many generations, Epimenides was immortalized within Greek history with his extraordinary intellectual and mythical god-like status, thereby elevating him to a divine-like status. As a result, his life and works have captivated the imagination of scholars and storytellers for thousands of years.

In this essay, I aim to shed light on the origins of our Western esoteric traditions, drawing from the perspectives of ancient philosophers and historians. According to some of these most esteemed thinkers, the roots of this tradition can be traced back to Epimenides and the enigmatic Orphic mysteries, originating in the land of Crete and Greece.

Both the Orphic and teachings of Epimenides can be found in the philosophies of some of the world’s greatest philosophers such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle and their intellectual successors such as the Pythagoreans and Neoplatonists who followed this tradition forming a direct lineage from Orpheus. (2) In examining their own sources for their philosophies, they all claim that both Orpheus and Epemenides had equally influenced their own ideas.

According to these accounts, both Orpheus and Epemenides lived at approximately the same time and in the same places with very similar accomplishments. For example, as Orpheus and Epemenides had accomplished, we find that they are similarly immortalized in myth and history for their efforts to revolutionize the secret mysteries in order to create a new state religion and also cleanse the land from a devastating plague.

According to Plato, Epimenides undertook the work assigned to him by the Delphic Oracle, which held a significant influence on the advancement of Hellenic society. (3) Aristotle said that he gave his oracles not about the future, but about things in the past that were obscure.

In myth and history, their influence on both ancient political and religious doctrines has served as the very foundation for shaping the course of Western philosophy and esotericism. Initial concepts that we find deeply intertwined within the philosophical and religious ideas of the collective imagination of many of the early Cretan and Greek philosophers, which became the very cornerstone of Western Esotericism, Philosophy, Gnosticism, and the later Abrahamic religions.

At the center of these ideas was the home of Epimenides and his ancestors, the island of Crete.

Two books Epimenides was said to have  written that were mentioned by several eminent ancient authors were The History of Crete and Kretika or Cretika. The “History of Crete” is a comprehensive account of the origins, development, and notable events of the island of Crete.

Epimenides traces the history of the island from its mythical beginnings to the time of his own writing. The work is said to provide valuable insights into Cretan civilization, its social structures, religious practices, and the interplay of various cultural influences. Although the original text of the “History of Crete” has been lost, and our knowledge of its contents comes primarily from references and quotations found in later works by other authors.

“Kretika or Cretika,” on the other hand, is a collection of religious and moral teaching in the form of poems and hymns celebrating the glory and virtues of Crete. These poems praised the island’s natural beauty, its people’s achievements, and the valor of Cretan warriors.

Epimenides wrote;

“There is a land called Crete in the midst of the wine-dark sea, a fair land and a rich, begirt with water, and therein are many men innumerable, and ninety cities. And all have not the same speech, but there is confusion of tongues; there dwell Achaeans and there too Cretans of Crete, high of heart, and Cydonians there and Dorians of waving plumes and goodly Pelasgians.”

The “Kretika” served as a means to promote a deep understanding of religious beliefs and practices prevalent in ancient Crete. However, like the “History of Crete,” the original text of “Kretika” has not survived, and our knowledge of its contents is based on fragments and references in other ancient texts.

Diodorus Siculus, the first-century-BC historian of ancient Greece said that he relied upon Epimenides’ work for his Bibliotheca historica claiming that, “I have followed the most trustworthy authorities on Cretan affairs, Epimenides the Theologian, Dosiades, Sosicrates and Laosthenes.” (4)

Both Aristotle and Plutarch included Epimenides in the esteemed group known as the Seven Wise Men according to ancient tradition. The Seven Wise Men hold a significant position in the early stages of Hellenic history, as they played a pivotal role in shaping and consolidating Hellenism.

Plutarch wrote;

“Under these circumstances, they summoned to their aid from Crete Epimenides of Phaestus, who is reckoned as the seventh Wise Man by some of those who refuse Periander a place in the list. He was reputed to be a man beloved of the gods, and endowed with a mystical and heaven-sent wisdom in religious matters.

Therefore the men of his time said that he was the son of a nymph named Balte, and called him a new Cures. On coming to Athens he made Solon his friend, assisted him in many ways, and paved the way for his legislation.”(5)

What is certain, is that many esteemed authorities, from Plato and Aristotle onward, emphasized the religious, political, and social ramifications resulting from the life and work of Epimenides. Other philosophers, such as Parmenides and Heraclitus, drew upon his ideas to shape their own philosophies.

Parmenides, as discussed in “Metaphysics and Ethics in Epimenides’ Teachings” by A. Turner, adopted Epimenides’ emphasis on the existence of a singular reality, in his case, the concept of Being. Heraclitus, known for his philosophy of change and flux, incorporated Epimenides’ insights into the nature of reality and the paradoxes of existence. (6)

Being counted as a main authority for Siculus and among the Seven Wise Men in the early tradition not only attests to Epimenides’ authority among ancient philosophers of Greece, but also signifies his contribution to the fame and collective memory of the Phoenician and Hellenic people.

Now, let us examine these esoteric connections.


Perhaps Epimenides is most often remembered for his famous quote known as the “Liar Paradox,” which challenges the very foundations of truth and logic. The quote is from his book called Cretica (Κρητικά) when Minos addresses the god, Zeus.

We find this verse initially appearing in Callimachus'(270 B.C.) Hymn to Jupiter/Zeus (verses 8-11):

“They say that thou, O Zeus, wast born in [Cretan] Ida’s mountains, and that thou wast born in Arcadia. Which, O Father, spoke falsely? The Cretans are always liars: and this we know, for thy tomb, O King, the Cretans fashioned; but thou didst not die, for thou existest always.”

Epimenides’ paradox is mentioned by Epimenides himself, as recorded by Diogenes Laertius in “Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers” (3rd century CE). However, it is important to note that the attribution of the paradox to Epimenides is not certain, and it could have been later attributed to him. (7)

And later, during the Christian era, the apostle Paul references Epimenides’ paradox in the New Testament, specifically in the “Epistle to Titus” (Titus 1:12). Paul says about the Cretans’ reputation;

“One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, idle bellies” (kata thêria, gasteres argai),” which is an allusion to the paradox.

This connection to Paul, Crete, and the Bible shows Epimenides actively influenced and possibly participated in these Gnostic movements. As I explained, he also influenced many of the early Greek philosophers and historians such as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, and Diodorus Siclus, to name a few.

We also find the Epimenides’ Paradox in a discussion on liars in “Sophist” by Plato (4th century BCE). In Section 231, Plato mentions Epimenides as an example of a liar who paradoxically claims that all Cretans are liars. Although this particular quote doesn’t directly reference Epimenides’ statement, it engages with the idea of the paradox.

Plato wrote; “The Cretans, according to our account, have not only invented the story of the birth of Zeus, but they have also, as Epimenides says, declared all men to be liars.” (8)

Plato’s student and predecessor, Aristotle also mentions the same quote in his “Metaphysics;”

“But a man may ask whether what is said should be regarded as universally false or only as not universally true; for if what Epimenides says is true, it is false, and if false, it is true.” (9)

Moreover, the island of Crete held a significant place in the hearts of Cretans and Greeks alike, for it was venerated as the very cradle of Greek myths and religion. In particular, it was considered the sacred birthplace of Zeus, the revered father of gods and men.


Pythagoras, the renowned mathematician and philosopher, is said to have encountered Epimenides during his travels to Crete. We are told that he was a student of Epimmenides. It is also well known that Pythagoras has played a pivotal role in the history of Western esotericism expanding upon the philosophical and mathematical doctrine with his followers, the Pythagoreans.

Pythagoras was spoken of and written about much more often. His great fame had the twin effects of making his name the focus of legends, which multiplied over the centuries, and of preserving the memory of the historical events of his time.

Although Epimenides was not directly associated with the Pythagorean school, several Pythagorean fragments and testimonies mention a connection between Pythagoras and Epimenides. These fragments, collected by various ancient authors, provide indirect evidence of Epimenides’ influence on Pythagoras and his followers.

The primary sources on Pythagoras, such as the works of Diogenes Laërtius, Iamblichus, and Porphyry, mention Pythagoras’ journey to Crete. Additionally, Plato’s dialogue “Phaedrus” depicts Socrates discussing the potential influence of Pythagorean thought, suggesting a connection between Pythagoras and Cretan philosophy. (10)

It is important to note that the primary source for this account is Diogenes Laertius’ book on Pythagoras. Laërtius, a doxographer who lived around 200 to 250 C.E., played a crucial role in preserving the biographies of ancient Greek philosophers through his notable work, Lives of Eminent Philosophers. The book consists of ten books that provide a wealth of information from the lives of nearly one hundred philosophers, including Pythagoras and 45 significant figures spanning from the seventh century C.C to the late second century C.E. (11)

A majority of Laërtius’ biographies name the teacher and student of each philosopher, and the people with whom they had personal encounters. To construct this comprehensive account,  Laërtius drew information from numerous earlier works, many of which have been lost over time.

According to Laertius, Pythagoras embarked on extensive travels throughout the known world during his quest for knowledge with the intention of acquiring important initiations from various sources. As part of his journey, Pythagoras made a significant stop in Crete to meet Epimenides, a renowned figure of esoteric knowledge.

Epimenides possessed such valuable esoteric wisdom that Pythagoras himself sought initiation from him. Their meeting in Crete was a pivotal moment, as Pythagoras aspired to complete his initiation under Epimenides’ guidance. Together, they ventured into the renowned “Idaeon andron,” a cave of great significance. This cave was believed to be the birthplace of Zeus, the highest deity in Greek mythology.

Many biographical traditions recount Pythagoras’initiation into the mysteries in the Idean Cave on Mount Ida on Crete along with his journeys to culturally advanced eastern countries like Egypt and Babylon, as well as to Italy. This variation in narratives adds an intriguing layer to the understanding of Epimenides’ role and the sacred caves associated with Zeus.

Laertius wrote:

“When he was in Crete with Epimenides, he came down to Idaeon andron

Then (Pythagoras) visited Crete and descended to Idaion Andron accompanied by Epimenides, but also in Egypt to the depths;

but he also visited the shelters of the temples of Egypt. And learned about the gods in secret.”

Porphyry of Tyre , a Neoplatonic philosopher born in Tyre (Roman Phoenicia), mentioned the initiation of Pythagoras on the island of Crete at the cave located at Mount Ida, which was the original home to the Biblical Tribe of Judah (Idumeans, Judeans).

Porphyry wrote in the “Life of Pythagoras;”

“Going to Crete, Pythagoras besought initiation from the priests of Morgos, one of the Idaean Dactyli, by whom he was purified with the meteoritic thunder-stone. In the morning he lay stretched upon his face by the seaside; at night, he lay beside a river, crowned with a black lamb’s woolen wreath.

Descending into the Idaean cave, wrapped in black wool, he stayed there twenty-seven days, according to custom; he sacrificed to Zeus, and saw the throne which there is yearly made for him. On Zeus’s tomb, Pythagoras inscribed an epigram, “Pythagoras to Zeus,” which begins: “Zeus deceased here lies, whom men call Jove.” (11)

The name “Idaean Dactyli” is a reference to Mount Ida. Strabo, a Greek geographer and historian, provides geographical and historical information about Crete in his work “Geography.” Strabo had written, that the priests from Crete called the Curetes (Kuretes), were also known as the Corybantes, Idean Dactyls, Cabiri, and Telchines; which are all names that were used interchangeably with one another.

There are more mythological connections between Zeus, Mount Ida and the island of Crete. When the infant Zeus was born to his mother Rhea, his vengeful father Cronus had learned from Gaia and Uranus that his own son was destined to overcome him and become King. Rhea knowing what his father would do to him, had devised a plan to hide the real Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete, and in which she entrusted his care to the priesthood of the Curetes, who were also known as the “Ministers of Cybele.”

Although his writing does not explicitly discuss Epimenides’ influence on other philosophers, it offers contextual information about the time and place in which Epimenides and Pythagoras lived, helping to understand the cultural and intellectual milieu that facilitated philosophical exchanges.(12)

Epimenides’ ideas about paradoxes and the nature of truth deeply influenced Pythagoras’ philosophical pursuits. Pythagoras, known for his fascination with numbers and their mystical properties, was intrigued by Epimenides’ paradox and its implications for understanding the foundations of knowledge and logic.

According to “The Influence of Epimenides on Pythagorean Philosophy” by M. Williams, Pythagoras recognized the value of Epimenides’ teachings on religious devotion and the concept of the soul. Epimenides’ belief in the interconnection between the divine and mortal realms resonated deeply with Pythagoras’ own exploration of the harmony and order underlying the universe. (13)

The influence of Epimenides is especially evident in Pythagoras’ theory of the transmigration of souls, where he posited that the soul is immortal and can undergo successive reincarnations.

One notable concept that Pythagoras adopted from Epimenides was the notion of purification of the soul. Epimenides taught that the soul could be cleansed through spiritual practices and rituals, leading to a harmonious existence. Pythagoras embraced this idea, incorporating it into his theory of the transmigration of souls and the pursuit of moral and intellectual virtues leading to reason.

This concept can be found in the Abrahamic religions like in Christianity with saving your soul or being born again. Not everyone who emarks on the wrong path or lives ignorantly, immorally, and unethical is damned to a life of misery.

It is believed that Pythagoras incorporated elements of Epimenides’ paradoxes into his own teachings, which emphasized the pursuit of truth and the interconnectedness of all things. Pythagorean philosophy, with its emphasis on harmony, the eternal nature of the soul, and the mathematical underpinnings of the universe, owes a debt to Epimenides’ thought.


Plato, the renowned philosopher and student of Socrates, was also influenced by Epimenides. Although there is limited direct evidence of their interaction, Plato’s works reflect Epimenides’ influence through shared philosophical themes and ideas. Epimenides’ belief in the existence of divine forces, the significance of myth and symbolism, and the pursuit of higher truths resonated strongly with Plato’s philosophical inquiries.

In Book 10 of “Laws, Plato’s portrayal of Epimenides in “Laws” draws heavily from the mythological traditions of ancient Greece to discuss the nature of divine law, prophecy, and the moral foundations of society. He presents Epimenides as a wise and virtuous individual who possesses an understanding of divine order and the significance of rituals and sacrifices. (14)

Plato describes Epimenides as a seer, someone who has a deep connection to the divine and the supernatural. Epimenides’ character serves as an authority on religious rituals and the interpretation of signs from the gods. He argues that these rituals are crucial for maintaining social cohesion and order.

One of Epimenides’ most famous contributions, the paradox of the “Cretan Liar,” had a lasting impact on Plato’s philosophical discourse. The paradox posed the question of whether a statement made by a Cretan asserting that all Cretans were liars could be true. This paradox challenged notions of truth, language, and self-reference, inspiring Plato’s exploration of these concepts in his dialogues.

Epimenides’ ideas on the existence of an ultimate reality beyond the sensory realm deeply influenced Plato’s theory of Forms or Ideas. Plato incorporated the notion of an eternal and unchanging realm of perfect forms, which closely aligned with Epimenides’ emphasis on the transcendental nature of truth. Additionally, Epimenides’ teachings on the significance of morality and the pursuit of virtue influenced Plato’s ethical philosophy, particularly his concept of the philosopher-king and the ideal city-state.

Plato mentions Epimenides in his Laws in the discussion between Megillus and Clinias in which Clinias claims a family connection to the Cretan prophet:

CLINIAS: My story, too, Stranger, when you hear it, will show you that you may boldly say all you wish. You have probably heard how that inspired man Epimenides, who was a family connection of ours, was born in Crete; and how ten years before the Persian War, in obedience to the oracle of the god, he went to Athens and offered certain sacrifices which the god had ordained; and how, moreover, when the Athenians were alarmed at the Persians’ expeditionary force, [642e] he made this prophecy —

“They will not come for ten years, and when they do come, they will return back again with all their hopes frustrated, and after suffering more woes than they inflict.” Then our forefathers became guest-friends of yours, and ever since both my fathers and I myself.


One notable aspect of Epimenides’ reputation among the Cretans was their belief in his divine origins. His mythical lineage can be traced back to the legendary King Minos, famous for his labyrinth and the Minotaur.

From a young age, he was said to have exhibited exceptional intelligence and exhibited a deep connection with nature, spending hours wandering the hills and caves surrounding his home. It was during one of these excursions that he encountered an enigmatic figure, a god-like presence who granted him an extraordinary gift.

Epimenides’ reputation as a sage grew exponentially when he ventured into the famed Labyrinth of Knossos, seeking answers to the mysteries of existence. Legend has it that he spent days wandering through its winding corridors, encountering mythical creatures and unraveling the secrets hidden within. Some accounts even suggest that he communed with the Minotaur, transforming it from a fearsome monster into a docile creature.

There is a famous legend surrounding the origination of the prophetic talents of Epimenides which the Greeks had usually embellished in mythology. The legend is, that while Epimenides was tending his father’s sheep, he is said to have fallen asleep for 40 or 57 years (on Mount Ida on the island of Crete) in a cave sacred to the King of Gods and Men, Zeus, and after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy.

The story appears to be an allegory, showing us that Epimenides was asleep “figuratively” until he reached his older years when he became enlightened.

At this moment, he finally awoke from his metaphorical slumber within the cave and attained inner enlightenment or Gnosis, becoming exceptionally wise in various disciplines and attaining a godlike status. This very cave gained worldwide renown as it appears to have served as an exclusive venue for initiation into the Orphic ceremonies and secret mysteries.

According to the accounts of the ancient historian, Theopompus, Epimeminides was said to have been divinely inspired to construct a sacred shrine dedicated to Zeus. He refers to the Creatn Prophets as the new Kouros or Koures, who had a significant connection to Zeus Cretagenes, possibly serving as his attendant or priest.

Though the precise nature of their association remains somewhat speculative, it is plausible that Epimenides served as an attendant or priest, carrying out sacred rites and rituals on behalf of the god. His actions and well-documented history exemplify his role as a defender and follower of Zeus, and also as one of the founders of the mystery schools, which left an immortal mark on the religious landscape of ancient Crete and the Ancient philosophers of Greece.

In Greek mythology, Jupiter was equated with Zeus, the king of the gods. The planet Jupiter has been associated with various names in different mythologies throughout history. The Romans also identified the planet with their supreme deity, giving him the same name. These associations can be traced back to the ancient Greeks and Romans who observed the planet and attributed its characteristics to their respective gods.

Plutarch refers to him as the “New Kouretes,” and the Cretans regarded his mother as the nymph Balte (Βάλτη) [2]. The divine connection attributed to Epimenides reflects the high regard in which he was held by his fellow Cretans.

Plutarch mentions both Epimenides and Solon were in Athens at the same time, and on friendly terms. The purification of Athens by Epimenides is generally assigned to B.c. 596 — 595, shortly before the archonship of Solon in 594. (15)

Epimenides assisted with the proper methods for the regulation of the Athenian Commonwealth to restore law and order. His expertise in sacrifices and the reform of funeral practices greatly assisted Solon in his efforts to reform the Athenian state.

Plutarch also said that Epimenides was almost like a messiah to the Greeks at the time because he had purified Athens and that the only reward he would accept was a branch of the sacred olive, and a promise of perpetual friendship between Athens and Knossos.

Plutarch wrote;

“Epimenides purified Athens after the pollution brought by the Alcmeonidae, and that the seer’s expertise in sacrifices and reform of funeral practices were of great help to Solon in his reform of the Athenian state. The only reward he would accept was a branch of the sacred olive, and a promise of perpetual friendship between Athens and Knossos.”

Maximus of Tyre confirms this event in the 2nd century CE;

“There came to Athens also another Cretan named Epimenides. He was marvelously skilled in the things of God, so that he saved the city of the Athenians when it was perishing through pestilence and sedition; and he was skillful in these matters, not because he had learned them, but, as he related, long sleep and a dream had been his inspiration … he had come into relations with the gods and the oracles of the gods and Truth and Justice.

For Solon had proclaimed at the time;

“In the day of vengeance, dark Earth, mightiest mother of the gods of Olympus, will be my surest witness of this, Solon’s account from whom I removed pillars planted in many places, and whom I freed from her bonds. Many citizens, who had been sold into slavery under the law or against it, I brought back to Athens their home; some of them spoke Attic no longer, their speech being changed in their many wanderings. Others who had learnt the habits of slaves at home, and trembled before a master, I made to be free men.

All this I accomplished by authority, uniting force with justice, and I fulfilled my promise.” (16)

Epimenides was said to have founded numerous religious organizations and installed statues of the gods throughout the streets of Athens. His intention was to instill in the minds of Athenians the constant presence of divine nature in various forms, where no indecency is allowed and everything must be regarded as sacred and untainted.

The ultimate goal and outcome were the thorough purification of the city and the establishment of virtuous guidelines for communal existence. It was imperative for the citizens to dwell in the ever-present aura of the divine.

Pausanias reports, that when Epimenides died, his skin was found to be covered with tattoo writing. Some modern scholars have seen this as evidence, that Epimenides was heir to the shamanic religions of Central Asia, because tattooing is often associated with shamanic initiation.”

He also places Epimenides at Knossos and claims he was killed and buried near the statue of Athena. Pausinias wrote:

“By the Canopy is a circular building [in Sparta], and in it images of Zeus and Aphrodite surnamed Olympioi. This, they say, was set up by Epimenides, but their account of him does not agree with that of the Argives, for the Lakedaimonians deny that they ever fought with the Knossians.”

[2.21.3] A sanctuary of Athena Trumpet they say was founded by Hegeleos. This Hegeleos, according to the story, was the son of Tyrsenus, and Tyrsenus was the son of Heracles and the Lydian woman; Tyrsenus invented the trumpet, and Hegeleos, the son of Tyrsenus, taught the Dorians with Temenus how to play the instrument, and for this reason gave Athena the surname Trumpet.

Before the temple of Athena is, they say, the grave of Epimenides. The Argive story is that the Lacedaemonians made war upon the Cnossians and took Epimenides alive; they then put him to death for not prophesying good luck to them, and the Argives taking his body buried it here.”


Epimenides of Crete, with his paradoxes and philosophical ideas, left an enduring legacy on the development of Western philosophy. Through his influence on Socrates, Pythagoras, Plato, and other great philosophers, Epimenides’ exploration of truth, language, and metaphysics contributed to both the foundation and evolution of philosophical thought.

As an intermediary between the earthly and divine realms, Epimenides’ influence reached far beyond the confines of his immediate surroundings. His reputation as a philosopher, religious leader, and visionary extended throughout Greece and into Italy, capturing the attention and admiration of people from various parts of the world.

As we delve into the works of these philosophers and examine their ideas, we can trace the threads of Epimenides’ influence, highlighting the lasting impact of his contributions on philosophical discourse throughout the ages. Although direct references to Epimenides may be scarce, the parallels between their ideas, as found in primary sources such as Diogenes Laertius, Plato’s dialogues, and Aristotle’s works, suggest a deep and lasting influence.

Additionally, Pythagorean fragments, testimonies, and anecdotes collected by authors like Aelian offer indirect evidence of the connection between Epimenides and Pythagoras. While the exact extent of Epimenides’ influence may remain a matter of speculation, the interplay of their philosophical ideas demonstrates the rich and interconnected philosophical themes and concepts in their works highlighting the lasting influence on Western Esotericism.

Epimenides’ role in shaping the metaphysical and spiritual landscape of the time was widely acknowledged and respected. His presence and influence epitomized the deep connection between the mortal and divine realms, leaving an indelible mark on the religious consciousness of the ancient world that lasts until this very day.

I believe that the immortal story of Epimenides enshrined as the mythical Orpheus proves the origins of our Western religious and esoteric traditions. An ancient custom that is also connected to the sacred history of the island of Crete, solidifying its status as a spiritual epicenter for the various Gnostic and philosophical schools that came after throughout history.


1. Guthrie, W.K.C. “A History of Greek Philosophy, Volume 1: The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans.” Cambridge University Press, 1962.

2. Forsyth, Neil. “Epimenides of Knossos.” In “The Oxford Classical Dictionary,” edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, 4th ed., 525-526. Oxford University Press, 2012

3. PLATO LAWS – § 642

4. Diodorus Siculus, “Library of History,” Book 5.77-78.

5. Plutarch, “Life of Solon,” in Plutarch’s Lives, trans. Bernadotte Perrin (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914

6. Metaphysics and Ethics in Epimenides’ Teachings” by A. Turner

6. Guthrie, W. K. C. (1980). “A History of Greek Philosophy: Volume 1, The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans.

7.  Laërtius, Diogenes. “Lives of Eminent Philosophers.” Translated by R. D. Hicks, Harvard University Press, 1925

8. Plato, “Phaedrus,” 260d

9. Aristotle, “Metaphysics,” Book 4, Part 7

10. Life of Pythagoras (1920). English translation

9.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1924), 10.4.14

10.  The Influence of Epimenides on Pythagorean Philosophy by M. Williams

11. Laërtius, Diogenes. “Lives of Eminent Philosophers.” Translated by R. D. Hicks, Harvard University Press, 1925

12. Strabo, “Geography,” in The Geography of Strabo, trans. Horace Leonard Jones

13. The Influence of Epimenides on Pythagorean Philosophy” by M. Williams

14. Plato. “Laws.” Translated by Trevor J. Saunders, Penguin Classics, 1970

15. Plutarch, Life of Solon, 12; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 1

16.  Asianic Elements in Greek Civilisation: The Gifford Lectures in the University of Edinburgh – Chapter 3 1915-16: Sir Ramsay

The history and dangers of celibacy in the priesthood

The history and dangers of celibacy in the priesthood

“It is better to marry than to burn. It is better to marry than to be the occasion of death” Pope Gregory the Great had said in the 7th Century.

The first Great Schism in A.D. 1054. between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox was due to a disagreement on priestly celibacy, and the RCC mandates of priestly celibacy have been widely protested by Orthodox Christians in the Eastern Mediterranean world for the last 1500 years.

The first ecumenical council condemned homosexuality, Lateran III of 1179, stated “Whoever shall be found to have committed that incontinence which is against nature” shall be punished, the severity of which depended upon whether the transgressor was a cleric or layperson (quoted in Boswell, 1980, 277).

Church Fathers, Origen, like his teacher St. Clement of Alexandria, had defended the lawfulness of marriage against celibacy in what they had feared were the teachings of demons was a departure from the historic faith as said by Saint Paul in “attaching themselves to demonic doctrines (Timothy 4:1-3).” St. John warns us against such deceiving spirits (John 4:1-6) and them πνεύμα τῆς πλάνης, “the spirit of error.”

Now the Spirit expressly states that in later times some will abandon the faith to follow deceitful spirits and the teachings of demons, influenced by the hypocrisy of liars, whose consciences are seared with a hot iron.…

Today, we may observe a result of these doctrines in the West with the Roman Catholic Church’s pedophile church scandals, unmarked children’s graves, and fewer people identifying with their religion. A 2021 Gallup poll found that Americans’ membership in houses of worship continued to decline in 2020, decreasing below 50% for the first time. In 2020, 47% of Americans said they belonged to a church, synagogue, or mosque, down from 50% in 2018 and 70% in 1999.

Many people and priests in the Western world praise celibacy as an exemplary demonstration of one’s faith in God only and the Church. But there are also many people, scientists, and even Church officials over the last 1500 years who have strongly disagreed with mandatory celibacy and in fact, many believed that it would cause great evils.

The quote I listed above, “It is better to marry than to burn. It is better to marry than to be the occasion of death,” was made by Pope Gregory the Great in the 7th Century shortly after under his authority Rome had issued a decree depriving Catholic Priests of their wives.

Meaning, priestly celibacy, was now officially enforced by Roman Law, which meant that it was illegal to have sex with anyone before. Many of these same said priests were married or had serious relationships, mainly with women.

It was said that sometime after this decree was ordered, Pope Gregory had commanded that some fish should be caught from the local fish ponds, but instead of finding fish, the fishermen reportedly found the heads of six thousand infants who had been drowned in the ponds in order to conceal the priest’s fornications and adulteries.

Upon learning of the horrors of the murders committed by his priests as a result of his Unholy new law, Pope Gregory recalled his decree, and purged the sin with worthy fruits of repentance, extolling the apostolic command:

“It is better to marry than to burn. It is better to marry than to be the occasion of death.”

It appears that Pope Gregory’s prediction was spot on because now 1300 years later, in America and many parts of the world, gay priests and child rape within Church walls have not only become an open secret, they have become a plague infecting our culture at all levels.

Meanwhile, the Roman Catholic Church is in crisis.

Priests all over the world are being arrested and convicted for pedophilia.

There is a shortage of men willing to join the RCC as Church attendance is at its lowest ever. For the last several years, Pope Francis has been hinting that they are considering allowing married men to be ordained to address the Catholic priest shortage.

Today, the Roman Catholic Church requires it for those who are called to be priests and bishops, while the Orthodox Church requires it, for pastoral reasons, only for bishops and priests can marry if they choose to.

However, there were many early Church Fathers, Popes, Christian Philosophers, and commentators who were adamantly against celibacy in the not-so-distant past!

In fact, they believed that it was unnatural, therefore, it was against God’s hierarchy and Natural Law and the end result would be Great Evil.

Since we are at another junction in this 6th Age when the Roman Catholic Church is again debating whether to allow their priests to marry and have children or to remain celibate as American Catholic Priests are openly coming out of the closet cage to the New York Times as homosexuals, I thought it would be enlightening to publish some quotes from history showing us exactly what many imminent Christain authors and philosophers had said about celibacy, effeminism, and homosexuality.

Especially since in our modern era of Sodom and Gomorrah on Steroids 2.0, there is massive disinformation and gay propaganda campaign in the media to falsely claim that the Bible does not speak against homosexuality and these so-called authors are conveniently not revealing what both history and science has already proven this causes.

Science has now found evidence to indicate that an effeminate boy or man is a product of our society forced into the pattern, in part, by the rigid sex-typing of personality required by our society.

For example, one of America’s most influential figures in American sexology, Alfred Kinsey had stated that sexual liberation, as opposed to sexual abstinence, was the key to both a strong marriage and a happy life. Kinsey strongly believed that abstinence was a sexual dysfunction:

“The only kinds of sexual dysfunction are abstinencecelibacy, and delayed marriage.

With that said, I wanted to show you what some of the most imminent and well respected Christain authors had said and written about the act of sodomy that we now call homosexuality.


In Ancient Assyria (1450–1250 BCE),  sodomy was punished with castration: “If a man has lain with his male friend and a charge is brought and proved against him, the same thing shall be done to him and he shall be made a eunuch.”

Under Augustus Caesar, to be accused of being effeminate was one of the worst insults that could be said to a man. Augusts had punished male effeminacy in his law treating adultery. To be an effeminate man is the dichotomy created between masculinity and femininity when a man generally chooses to engage outside the traditionally normal roles for males in sports and in their career choices

Under the Vendidad (c. 250–650), the Zoroastrian collection of laws, male homosexuality was understood as an effect of demons: “The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is the man that is a Daeva [demon]; this one is the man that is a worshipper of the Daevas, that is a male paramour of the Daevas.”


Writing in the first century A.D., philosopher, Philo of Alexandria had equated Sodom’s sin with same-sex sexuality that he believed caused a man to be “unmasculine and effeminate,” a transgression of the gender hierarchy that he called the “greatest of all evils.”

Writing in the first century A.D., philosopher, Philo of Alexandria had equated Sodom’s sin with same-sex sexuality that he believed caused a man to be “unmasculine and effeminate,” a transgression of the gender hierarchy that he called the “greatest of all evils.”


Clement of Alexandria’s treatment of marriage is a bond of man and woman based on a free and rational choice, whose greatness lies in the opportunity to bear children which assimilates man to God, the Creator. He believed that the primary purpose of marriage is to produce children by which, according to Plato, one secures for himself a kind of immortality.

uthorities in his treatise on marriage (Strom. II, 23, 137, 1 – III, 18, 110, 3). It shows that Clement widely quotes not only biblical authorities, but also classical authors; in his practical theology he puts great emphasis primarily on Paul the Apostle, Plato, and Aristotle.

St. Clement speaks of marriage as co-operation among the couple, and leads to a kind of harmony; Origen, his disciple, sees in marriage a mutual giving.


Origen defends Christian marriage, as a type of unity of the Church with Christ.

Since God has joined them together (a man and a woman in marriage), for this reason there is a gift for those joined together by God.

To support the institution of marriage as a union blessed and sanctified by God, Clement states an argument from
the gospel, namely the Jesus’ word: “For where two or three gather in my name, there
am I with them.”

Paul knowing this declares that equally with the purity of the holy celibacy is marriage according to the Word of God a gift, saying, “But I would that all men were like myself; howbeit, each man has his own gift from God, one after this manner, and another after that” (1 Cor. 7:7). Those who are joined together by God obey in thought and deed the command “Husbands, love your wives, as Christ also the Church” Eph 5:25.

Using Seneca’s argument from the conduct of animals, he says, “Some women serve lust without any restraint.” indeed I would not compare them to dumb beasts; for beasts, when they conceive, know not to indulge their mates further with their plenty. Intercourse must be suspended until the woman can conceive again.”

The First or Second Century Didache, also known as The Lord’s Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations, an early Christian treatise written in Koine Greek, had said;

“You shall not commit murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not commit pederasty, you shall not commit fornication, you shall not steal, you shall not practice magic, you shall not practice witchcraft, you shall not murder a child by abortion nor kill one that has been born.” (Didache 2:2 A.D. 70).

Cicero says, “There exist certain precepts, even laws, that prohibit a man from being effeminate in pain,”[12] and Seneca adds, “If I must suffer illness, it will be my wish to do nothing out of control, nothing effeminately.”

In early Rome, legislators and the Roman Elite had a problem with older males raping their children so they instituted what is called the Lex Scantinia. This law protected minor males of noble families (ingenui) from being raped by older males. It was said to have been enacted around 149 B.C.E.

Justin Martyr writing in 151 A.D. said;

“We have been taught that to expose newly-born children is the part of wicked men, and this we have been taught lest we should do anyone harm and lest we should sin against God, first, because we see that almost all so exposed (not only the girls but also the males) are brought up to prostitution.

And for this pollution, a multitude of females and hermaphrodites, and those who commit unmentionable iniquities, are found in every nation. And you receive the hire of these, and duty and taxes from them, whom you ought to exterminate from your realm. . . . And there are some who prostitute even their own children and wives, and some who are openly mutilated for the purpose of sodomy; and they refer these mysteries to the mother of the gods” (First Apology 27 A.D. 151).

At one of the first worldwide meetings of the Churches at the Council of Nicea, called by Emperor Constantine in A.D. 325 to address the problem of heresies, the Chruch voted against celibacy at the conclusion of the council.

The late Roman Empire finally promulgated the first European law openly prohibiting sodomy in 390. The law was part of a code of laws set forth by Emperor Theodosius (c. 345–395), who was under the influence of the Christian Church.

The church’s policy was defined by Augustine (354–430), who, following the apostle Paul, determined that sexual pleasure was permissible only as procreation within marriage. Because homosexuality, as with adultery, was a sin, its punishment was penance imposed by the church rather than by secular authority.

The Byzantine emperor Justinian (c. 482–565) outlawed homosexuality in 533 in the Justinian Code, persons who engaged in homosexual sex were to be executed, although those who were repentant could be spared.

In 693, the Visigoths in Spain, Egica, monarch of “Spain” pleads with the 16th Council of bishops at Toledo to deal more firmly with “that obscene crime committed by those (clergymen) who lie with males.” The Council sets punishment as removal from office, castration, ex-communication, 100 lashes, exile. Egica decrees similar punishments on non-clergy as a matter of civil law, increasing the harshness of prior law.

Saint Thomas Aquinas ( ? – d. 1274) theorizes that all human sexual activity was intended by God to be solely for the purpose of producing children. Therefore any other sort of sexual doing was sinful and “unnatural.”

Several saint-bishops, including Thomas Becket, were apparently advised by their doctors that they should abandon celibacy for the sake of their health – although they always refused to do so. Non-clerics were also at risk, especially if they went on prolonged military campaigns. Louis VII of France became ill after spending two months besieging a Burgundian town, and his doctors agreed that ‘prolonged abstinence from sexual intercourse had cause his indisposition.’ One account of the Third Crusade claimed that ‘A hundred thousand men died there/ Because from women they abstained.’

In the 19th century, there was a significant reduction in the legal penalties for sodomy. After the French Revolution in 1789, the Napoleonic code decriminalized sodomy, and with Napoleon’s conquests that Code spread.

Sodomy was omitted from the penal code, and again from the code adopted in France in 1810. The basic concepts of the 1810 code also became the basis for much of the law in Spanish South America.

The Napoleonic code decriminalized sodomy, and with Napoleon’s liberal conquests, Code spread, and so did sodomy and sexual perversions.

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: The Jesuit Heretic

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: The Jesuit Heretic

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a Jesuit (Society of Jesus), was the most written-about and silenced Jesuit of the twentieth century, and certainly one of the most famous.

He was a geologist, a paleontologist, a philosopher, an evolutionary theorist, and a diehard mystic. Teilhard was also a gifted poet and writer who explored the cosmic intersection between science and religion.

The forbidden zone of gnosis for so-called pius Catholics.

Teilhard’s writings were banned by the Roman Catholic Church, but his books have sold more than a million copies. His ideas are part of mainstream popular culture, and his name is easily recognizable to most educated people. He has been called “one of the few truly great thinkers of our century,” and he has also been called a “deeply corrupting and corrupt philosopher.”

He has also been called “the man who discovered the soul of the world,” “the man who saw into tomorrow,” “the prophet of human potential,” and “the scientist with a heart.”

Teilhard was born in the Auvergne region of France to a family of minor nobility. He joined the Jesuit order in 1899 at age 18, citing his attraction to their strong emphasis on science education. Ordained as a Catholic Priest in 1911, he took up postgraduate studies in paleontology at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, and he also studied physics and chemistry at the Sorbonne University and geology under Professor Marcellin Boule at the Institute for Human Palaeontology.

In 1912 he received a degree in paleontology from the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, where he began his lifelong work studying fossils and human origins.

His Jesuit training took him to various locations around France, Belgium, England, Egypt, and South America. During World War I he served as an army chaplain and was among those who first uncovered evidence of the Piltdown Man fossil hoax. He then returned to Europe where he continued his work on paleontological studies. He was also a mystic who had visions and wrote about what he saw in language that was poetic and beautiful but difficult for many to understand.

Although Pope Pius XII praised him for his work, the Vatican condemned his work on several occasions. There are thousands of articles on his life and work, some praising him as an up-to-date thinker who brings together science and religion; others condemning him as a heretic who defies Church teachings on a number of subjects.

On 6 December 1957 the Holy Office published a decree stating that ‘the books of Father Teilhard de Chardin SJ must be withdrawn from the libraries of seminaries and religious institutes; they may not be sold in Catholic bookshops; and they may not be translated into other languages. The decree had little or no effect on the continued publication or the translation of Teilhard’s works.

The Society of Jesus has often been criticized for ‘silencing’ Teilhard. But, as Thomas Corbishley says, ‘If his superiors were to show a regrettable timidity in refusing to allow him to publish certain books which seemed, at the time, dangerously novel, it was these same superiors who encouraged his scientific bent and gave him every opportunity to pursue his interests in geology, paleontology, the study of human origins, which were to provide the basis for his larger speculations.’

Teilhard’s magnum opus, The Phenomenon of Man, was published posthumously in 1955 and remains controversial to this day. The book explores how evolution is moving toward greater complexity and consciousness — toward what Teilhard calls an Omega Point. In Teilhard’s view, the Omega Point is God; it is also the earth’s final destiny.

For Teilhard, evolution was continuous: matter evolved into life and life evolved into consciousness. Human beings are the highest stage in this process but not its final goal: evolution continues towards what he called Omega Point – the point of convergence towards which all the universe is evolving. This is the point at which all humanity will unite in a single perfect consciousness of Christ – “the ultimate fulfilment of all things” (Teilhard de Chardin 1964).

These teachings later developed into what is known as the nousphere or noosphere, named after the Greek word for mind – nous (νοῦς). The concept was developed by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) and Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945). The coining of the term is attributed to Édouard Le Roy (1870–1954).

The concept of a noosphere was first developed by Vladimir Vernadsky as he was working on his theory of the biosphere and geosphere. Vernadsky suggested that as life emerged on earth it created a new layer around the planet—the biosphere—that was distinct from geochemical processes and that changed over time with its own momentum.

In 1936, when Pierre Teilhard de Chardin read Vernadsky’s work, he saw how ideas about a nousphere might be worked into his own notion of both cosmic and biological evolution moving towards greater complexity and consciousness.

Teilhard’s concept of a global noosphere, or collective consciousness, is similar to Vernadsky’s idea of the “biosphere” (the planetary thinking layer). In The Phenomenon of Man (1955), he wrote that the noosphere is “a thinking envelope gradually spreading over the surface of the globe.”

The noosphere can be seen as an emergent property of our species-wide nervous system and communications networks. It develops in interaction with our genetic and cultural inheritance.

Teilhard says that there is a “greater complexity” than matter and energy. He calls this greater complexity “mind.” Matter makes up our physical world; mind makes up our mental world. But both matter and mind exist within one universe, which Teilhard calls the cosmic universe or cosmos.

Mankind’s mental activity, he suggested, might be a single field that could be measured and mapped, similar to an electromagnetic field. Eventually, we will create a conscious planetary superorganism encompassing all humanity and all its products.

The convergence of all our minds into one world-wide consciousness would constitute the noosphere.

Pope Paul VI had a great love for Teilhard’s writings and wanted to read them all. For this reason, he gave permission for his books to circulate secretly among bishops and cardinals only. The same thing happened under Pope John Paul II, who had two sets of Teilhard’s works in his library in Krakow: one set that was open and another that was kept under lock and key.

In 1962, Pope John XXIII approved several of his works for publication after being advised that they did not contain errors in faith or morals. In 1963 and again in 1966, the Holy Office (now called the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith) declined to approve more of his writings for publication because they contained “several ambiguities and grave errors.”

Despite orders from the Holy Office for Teilhard not to publish or speak about his controversial theories, he continued to do so until his death. After that, it was 50 years before the church lifted its ban on the publication of his works. But even then, some of those works were only released in censored form.

Teilhard had seen a need for a ‘new Nicæa’ to combat the threat of what he called a new arianism, a new diminution of Christ, not in relation to the Trinity, but in relation to the universe.

Writing to Bruno de Solages, rector of the Catholic Institute of Toulouse (1932-1964), he said, “I am more and more convinced the Church will only be able to resume its conquering march when it starts to rethink the relations, no longer between Christ and the Trinity, but between Christ and a universe.

Teilhard says that Christianity can only survive by subdistinguishing in the “human nature” of the Word Incarnate between a “terrestrial nature” and a “cosmic nature.”‘ ‘I am more than ever convinced,’ he adds, ‘that we shall need, sooner or later, a new Nicæa that will define the cosmic face of the incarnation.’

After his death, the religious writings of Teilhard de Chardin, banned by the Jesuit authorities who oversaw his order, became phenomenally popular, selling in their millions and being translated into every major language.

The New York Times called him “the forgotten man of human evolution.” Bruno de Solages sees him as ‘the greatest Christian apologist since Pascal.’

In 1981, Teilhard was beatified by Pope John Paul II, a step toward his ultimate canonization as a saint. His impact on the Second Vatican Council was undeniable; he was named as the person who had exercised more influence on those looking forward to the future than any other person.

But some Catholics, including many Jesuits, consider him to be dangerously controversial because of his ideas about evolution and creation, which were (and still are) at odds with church doctrine.

Khnum: The Creator God Molds Humans from Dust and Lord of the Air

Khnum: The Creator God Molds Humans from Dust and Lord of the Air

In Ancient Egypt, the god, Khnum (Chnubis, Knubis, Chnum, Knum, or Khnemu) was a creator god credited with giving birth to all life and the Gods of Egypt. He was Chief of the Potter’s wheel, father of fathers and the Gods who makes women pregnant, was Lord of the air and the field.

In Egyptian mythology, he creates humans from clay, which he made at a potter’s wheel before placing them into their mother’s womb was one of the earliest Egyptian deities, originally the god of the source of the Nile.

He was later described as having molded the other deities as the “Divine Potter” and “Lord of created things from himself” and the “father of the fathers” and Neith as the “mother of the mothers” who later become the parents of Ra, who is also referred to as Khnum-Re.

He was depicted as a ram-headed man who was credited with molding the great cosmic egg and he is also associated with the goddess Maat (truth) and Thoth, the divine scribe.

Ancient Egyptian tomb relief of the ram-headed god Khnum, guardian of the source of the Nile.

The female Goddess of Justice and the Lower World, the Land of Ghosts, was called Maat (Mot, Mout or Mut). She was often depicted with the vulture headdress and sometimes a Lion’s head. In legends, she is “The opener of the nostrils of the living.”

The Temple of Khnum, also known as the Temple of Esna, is a magnificent structure located approximately 485 miles south of modern Cairo that sits on the west bank of the Nile. It is built of red sandstone, with a grand portico composed of twenty-four columns decorated with unique lotus leaf details with distinctive Grecian and Roman styles.

The temple was unique to other Egyptian Templed because it was built approximately nine meters below ground level, and the part of the temple is buried underneath the modern town. As a result, the temple sits in a hollowed-out pit or valley, possibly due to its association with the underworld.

Inscriptions carved upon the temple walls tell us the attributes of this God, the sacred history surrounding his rule, and special instructions about the code of conduct expected from visitors entering the temple who were expected to be ritually pure by washing themselves and removing all body hair, cut finger, and toenails, and to have abstained from sexual relations for several days.

The temple was first started by the Egyptian King Tuthmosis III of the 18th Dynasty but was later finished by the Grecian Ptolemaic and Roman Emperors, from 40-250 A.D. It played a significant role in the late Egyptian Empire during the Greco and Roman rule, which various reliefs and inscriptions show us the Ptolemaic and Roman Emperors dressed in Pharaoh costumes, offering sacrifices to the God Khnum. The Roman Emperor Claudius had rebuilt and extended earlier buildings and was connected to the Nile by a quay built by Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius (AD 161–180)

The back wall, to the northeast, constructed during the Ptolemaic period, features reliefs of two Ptolemaic pharaohs, with the earliest being mentioned is Ptolemy V, who is seen offering a libation by his son Ptolemy VII Euergetes (170–116 BC). Quite a few Roman emperors, including Domitian, Septimus Severus, Caracalla, and Geta, had their names etched near the hall’s rear gateway.

Roman Emperor Trajan, carried by six Priests, with jackal and hawk masks of the gods, adorn each room’s entrance, and on the roof, Emperor Trajan is seen dancing before the goddess Menhet. The northern wall shows Emperor Commodus catching fish in a papyrus thicket with the God Khnum, and at the foot of this representation is the last known hieroglyphic inscriptions ever recorded, completed by the Roman Emperor Dios in 250 A.D.

The columns were inscribed with ancient texts describing the religious rituals and hymns to the God Khnum, in which we learn about his various powers and attributes.

The first is a morning hymn to awaken Khnum in his shrine; the second is a beautiful ‘hymn of creation’ that acknowledges him as the creator of all, even foreigners:

 ‘All are formed on his potter’s wheel, their speech different in every region, but the lord of the wheel is their father too.’

The temple gained international attention when the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had conquered Egypt in 1798 when he brought along an ‘army’ of scholars to study Egypt’s ancient secrets and history. As a result, Bonaparte created The Institut d’Égypte or Egyptian Scientific Institute, which is a learned society in Cairo specializing in Egyptology whose mission was “progress and the propagation of the Enlightenment in Egypt.”

The excavation of the Temple of Khnum was spearheaded by the French Egyptologist Serge Sauneron (1927-1976), who published his research and the transcription of the inscriptions in full. Here are a couple of hymns to Khnum showing us how important he was as the main God and Father of all depicted on Esna Column 15 (353-363).

The Ba of Re,
who came about in the beginning,
he rejoices to see him
every day.

He makes for him a property deed
in his name,
its limits are all eternity.

Khnum-Re Lord of the Field.

father of fathers,
who begat gods, people,
and likewise all animals.

Their faces are turned back
to the place where (he) is,
beseeching their lives from him.

Khnum-Re Lord of Esna.

The praises
for this august god:

O he who sits upon his serekh,
populating every place.

O he who goes around the two lands in life
to enliven those who are within them.

O Chief of the Potter’s Wheel,
who builds as he desires.

O lord of air,
who endows life to those whom he created.

O ejaculating bull,
who makes semen into/from bones.

O he who makes women pregnant
through that which he did.

O beneficent father,
who binds together the excellent seed.

O he who forms gods, men,
and all animals
upon his potter’s wheel.

O he who built the Lord
in order to guide the two lands.

O he who created the papyrus stalk
for the goddess who is with him.

O he he distinguished whomever he desires inside wombs.

O he who creates the egg
in accordance with his mind.

O he who enlivens babies with his breath.

O he ruptures the amniotic sac at its time.

O he helps nourish what he made
inside all wombs.

O he who acts as King of the Gods (Amun)
and whose manifestation builds on the wheel.

O he who makes a path
for the not-yet-breathing in his form.

[O he who allows nos]trils [to breathe] with air.

[O he] who endows the body with life.

O he whose rewards are building and enlivening.

How Liberal Freemasons Changed Traditional Masonry & Western Philosophy

How Liberal Freemasons Changed Traditional Masonry & Western Philosophy

“I am present at the sowing of the seed of the world.” – Ralph Waldo Emmerson

During his Harvard commencement speech in 1837, Ralph Waldo Emmerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) took the podium to address the top students in the graduating class marking the capstone in a week of ceremony and tradition. In his speech, titled “The American Scholar,” Emerson commanded that our young country must develop a national intellectual life distinct from the colonial influences of the past. He condemned the academic scholarship of the time for its reliance on historical and institutional wisdom.

Emmerson argued that the scholar had become “decent, indolent, complaisant.” To become more than “a mere thinker, or, still worse, the parrot of other men’s thinking,” a scholar must begin to engage with the world for oneself.

Emmerson is a famous American author and poet who grew up in Concord, Massachusetts, famously known as the home of both Minutemen and Transcendentalists. A place where “embattled farmers” fired “the shot heard ’round the world,” starting the war for political independence on the 19th of April 1775. The place where I contend that the traditional landscape of Freemasonry and philosophy were officially changed to what was we see today in the West.

Emmerson’s “The American Scholar” would give a new voice to the movement’s individualism: envisioning an independent American intellectual culture premised not on any kind of nationalist pride—nor any particular doctrine or political system—but on a dedication to independence itself. He would later define the “American idea” he sought to promote through his work simply as “Emancipation.”

Emerson’s speech left a particular impression on two members of the Harvard community, a troublemaking undergraduate named James Russell Lowell and a recent alumnus named Oliver Wendell Holmes.

“The Puritan revolt had made us ecclesiastically and the Revolution politically independent, but we were still socially and intellectually moored to English thought,” Lowell later wrote, “till Emerson cut the cable and gave us a chance at the dangers and the glories of blue water.”

Holmes called the speech America’s “intellectual Declaration of Independence.”

The world-famous Freemason and author Emmerson first preached the doctrine of “self-reliance” and Transcendental individualism, which directly conflicted with the tenets of Masonic fraternalism. After all, Freemasonry follows an ancient tradition reaching back to Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, and King Solomon’s Temple. Masons are expected to absorb these lessons dictated by our tradition and authority because, since ancient times, local lodges were governed by rules and constitutions tightly regulating the conduct of individuals.

However, Transcendentalists Freemasons like Emmerson urged Americans to free themselves from the dead hand of the past. As Emerson directed in his essay “Nature,” the transcendentalists sought freedom from the “poetry and philosophy of … tradition” and “religion by … history.”

This is where the idea of how to live much more liberally and do not honor our ancient traditions is sown like a seed by Emmerson into the American mind and Freemasonry. The Ancient Charge from the Records of Lodges of FreeMasons had stated their precepts emphatically, “A Mason is obliged by his Tenure, to obey the moral Law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine.”

Masonic historian and 33rd Degree Freemason Albert Mckay had written that a stupid Atheist is, “the fool who has said in his heart there is no God,” while an “irreligious libertine” designated “the man who, with a degree, less of unbelief, denies the distinctive doctrines of revealed religion.” McKay says that “a stupid Atheist” denoted, to use the language of the Psalmist, “the fool who has said in his heart there is no God,” while an “irreligious libertine” designated the man who, with a degree less of unbelief denies the distinctive doctrines of revealed religion. (Mackey’s Encyclopedia of Freemasonry)

I contend that Emerson’s ideas were also not in line with the original American Founders who believed in progress, enlightenment, and “a new order of the ages” but they also honored the ancient Greek and Roman traditions, philosophies of the religious basis of morals, and common law. Most of the Founders also came from conservative and orthodox (or “right-believing”) Christian religious traditions. For example, in the cases of John Jay, George Washington, Edward Rutledge, John Adams, Samuel Adams, Charles Carroll, and Daniel Carroll, and Thomas Fitzsimmons.

They were all baptized, listed on church rolls, and married to practicing Christians. In public statements, they invoked divine assistance. Many of them were Freemasons.

Robert P. Kraynak, professor of political science at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York, describes them as “enlightened traditionalists. Kraynak writes;

“The American Founders were unusual as eighteenth-century leaders because they were shaped by both the old world of aristocracy and the new world of democracy. They believed in progress, enlightenment, and “a new order of the ages”; but they also revered the ancient Romans, English traditions of the gentleman statesman and common law, the religious basis of morals, and practical experience.”

Kraynak stated, “The fourth element, cultural traditions, extends the idea of moral order to social practices. The American Founders believed that liberty required natural law (an objective standard of justice) and customs, habits, and manners derived from the heritage of Western civilization and English and American history.

I use the phrase “cultural traditions” as a catch-all phrase to refer to the values and beliefs handed down over centuries from several ancient sources—from classical Greek and Roman ideals of republican virtue and patriotic citizen-soldiers; from the English heritage of common law jurisprudence; from the ideal of gentlemen statesmen (possessing the gentleman’s code of honor); from Protestant Christianity and its biblical beliefs about America as a “city on a hill” charged with moral duties, such as the work ethic, the struggle against sin, and charity for the poor; and from the historical experience of local self-government in colonial assemblies and the harsh self-reliance of frontier life.

The implication is that liberty was embedded in cultural traditions that gave it higher and nobler purposes than mere self-expression or the values of a consumer-entertainment society. The American Founders assumed that such customs and traditions would provide a set of moral virtues for the exercise of responsible liberty by citizens and leaders.”

As you can see, Emerson’s demands that people free themselves from the dead hand of the past is not at all in line with the original ethos of the American founders. However, his ideas and influence would spread around America and the world.

Emmerson had many connections through his family and his Masonic membership. He was a member of the Corinthian Lodge, which played an essential role in starting the liberal revolution. He lectured there for many years, finding a very influential audience for his ideas. Quickly, his liberalist doctrines infected other people, lodges, and eventually, I contend, changing the very laws in our court systems to be pro-liberal.

Tracing the lineage from Traditional Freemasonry to Liberal Masonry is crucial to documenting the change. As the Masonic scholar, Robert A. Gross from the University of Connecticut writes;

“Well over 150 men passed through the Corinthian Lodge between 1797 and 1832; spiritual rebels like Thoreau can be counted on two hands. But, even more to the point, Freemasonry was the faith of the Transcendentalists’ fathers. The Rev. Ezra Ripley, member of both the Corinthian Lodge and the Royal Chapter and forceful defender of the fraternity in its time of woe, was the step-grandfather of Emerson.

His generational counterpart was the erstwhile minister and clergyman Asa Dunbar, the maternal grandfather of Thoreau. Tracing the lineage from Freemason to Transcendentalist is indeed as crucial to our intellectual history as following the path from Jonathan Edwards to Ralph Waldo Emerson.”

Emmerson was not only well connected in the states, but he also had some serious connections all over the world. In 1826, faced with poor health, Emerson moved to a warmer client in St. Augustine, Florida, where he took long walks on the beach and began writing poetry.

While in St. Augustine, he made the acquaintance of Prince Achille Murat, the nephew of the former French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, who had renounced his European titles (after his father had already been overthrown) and immigrated to the United States. Murat was also a writer, and the two young men reportedly discussed religion, politics, and philosophy.

In 1833, Emerson turned his love of writing into a career as a frequent lecturer. He traveled around New England, reading his essays and speaking to audiences about his views on nature, the role of religion, and his travels. In 1838, Emerson was invited to Divinity Hall, Harvard Divinity School, to deliver the school’s graduation address, which came to be known as the “Divinity School Address“.

Emerson discounted biblical miracles and proclaimed that, while Jesus was a great man, he was not God: historical Christianity, he said, had turned Jesus into a “demigod, as the Orientals or the Greeks would describe Osiris or Apollo”.

His comments outraged the establishment and the general Protestant community. He was denounced as an atheist and a poisoner of young men’s minds. Despite the roar of critics, he made no reply, leaving others to put forward a defense. He was not invited back to speak at Harvard for another thirty years.

In 1841 Emerson published Essays, his second book, which included the famous essay “Self-Reliance.” His aunt called it a “strange medley of atheism and false independence,” but it gained favorable reviews in London and Paris. More than any of Emerson’s contributions to date, this book, and its popular reception laid the groundwork for his international fame.

At the time, Emerson made a left turn from his contemporaries’ religious and social beliefs, formulating and expressing the philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay “Nature“. In 1837, he detailed this new doctrine in a speech entitled “The American Scholar“, which Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. considered to be America’s “intellectual Declaration of Independence.”

Emerson’s family was well connected to other Liberal transcendentalists such as the family of Henry James Sr. and one of the most famous liberal justices to ever to sit in the U.S. Supreme Court, Oliver Wendell Holmes, who was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was generally associated with the liberal wing of the Court on most issues as I will discuss in the next chapter.

Holmes once said that he wanted to be a man of letters like Emerson. While he was a student at Harvard, he had written various papers on philosophy and even an attack on Plato’s idealist philosophy, which he asked Emerson to read. Emerson famously replied, “If you strike at a king, you must kill him.”

In the following decades, until the modern-day, Freemasonry would suffer significantly for abandoning its founding principles based on Ancient Traditions for a more liberal and Transcendentalist Masonry. Rather than honoring tradition, following the idea of Emerson’s famous saying, “an institution” is not merely “the lengthened shadow of one man.”

No longer is a Masonic initiate subject to an extreme examination of his character by a special committee. Once admitted to a lodge, the Mason remained subject to collective discipline for immoral or criminal conduct. It was not about individualism but shared beliefs creating mutual bonds and loyalties to a more significant cause.

The new ethos was of a piece with the individualistic world of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.

Emerson was a well-paid and famous lecturer touring locations across the northern United States and in Canada. He was delivering up to 70-80 lectures a year in his prime, attracting the attention of Herman Melville, who attended his speaking engagements in New York City. In addition, he would go on walks with Nathaniel Hawthorne and captured the attention of leading theologian and intellectual Henry James Sr., father to William and Henry.

Many authors like Wallace Stevens and Robert Frost embraced and incorporated Emerson’s ideas furthering their spread.

In May 1857, he met at the Parker House Hotel in Boston with Francis Henry Underwood, Oliver Holmes Sr., and the poet and fellow Freemason, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Together they founded a magazine, The Atlantic Monthly, which was dedicated to advocating abolitionism and promoting new American ideas and voices.

In their words, they sought to advance American writing and the “American idea” “wherever the English tongue is spoken or read”—a reflection of Emerson’s desire for a national intellectual identity that could transcend the country’s institutions and borders.

In this year 2021, we can say they succeeded in spreading their Neo-Liberal ideas globally through their influence, media, and Freemasonry.

Emerson’s seed he had sown in the world well over 100 years ago is now a mighty oak tree.

Why Agia Roumeli, Crete is the Biblical Tarsus

Why Agia Roumeli, Crete is the Biblical Tarsus

On the southwest side of the Greek island of Crete, near a pristine cove and virgin beaches, sits the ruins of a town Agia Roumeli, that was once called Tara (Tarrha, Tarra, Tarrhus, Tarros, – Greek: Τάρρα). An ancient city with an illustrious history that during the Greco-Roman period was one of the most important of all the Mediterranean.

The natives and people of Tara were some of the most learned men in this part of the world. Writing in 19 A.D., Strabo tells us of its inhabitants’ enthusiasm for learning, especially for philosophy. In this respect, he speaks of Tara as Tarsus and claims the city surpasses Athens and Alexandria and every other university town.

According to traditional history, Greek colonists from Sparta founded the city Taras after the mythical hero Taras. The earliest legends tell us that Apollo, after murdering Python, arrived in Crete at Delphi, which is associated with Tara to be cleansed through purgatorial rituals ministered by the “first priests of Apollo who were Cretans from the City of Gnosis – Knossos.”

Here dwelt the famous temple of Apollo, surnamed Tarrhaeus, and the Oracle of Delphi, near the Southern part of the Samaria Gorge. Outside their temple of Gnosis, it simply read, “Know Thyself and Nothing in Excess.” The place where the High Priest Carmanor (Karmanor) where Apollo’s purification was woven into the Greek myths of the god’s entry into Delphi, and in times of plague (COVID), Epimenides Gnosis and other Cretans were summoned by the Delphic oracle.

During the first centuries of the Greco and Roman empires, the Island of Crete and the city-state of Tara was a place of greatest importance to the Imperial Cults in the Mediterranean. It was famous for many hundreds of years because of its history, learning, university, beauty, people, and its central location near mainland Greece and Egypt to operate its powerful maritime fleets and mercenary armies of archers.

The spiritual and historical roots of Tara tell us it was once one of the most ancient powerful cities of all the Old World who ruled over the rest of the cities such as in Southern Italy and Rome that was known as “Magna Graecia (Greater Greece)” in the time Before Christ (BC) and early AD. It once had one of the most advanced governments and militaries with a powerful fleet of ships that included a field army of tens of thousands of men.

It was inhabited and fiercely contested over since time immemorial. Due to the richness of the landscape which provided an abundance of fresh water and wildlife for food and the excellent quality of its wood, Tara or Tarsus became the epicenter of the world and of religion as well.

A famous old town that I believe various historical accounts connects us to the cities Tarsus, Tarshish, Tyre, Tyanna, and Ataroth, which I have found are all the same city but with different names throughout the last 2,000 plus years.

In order to travel to this area of Crete, you will find that there are no roads or tourist industries in or around the sleepy town of Agia Roumeli. By design or fate. The only way to find the remnants of Tara is by boat or a very long hike.

It has just about disappeared from history, but a necropolis was once excavated there, and some ruins can still be seen of it on the eastern side of the river (which runs down through the Samaria Gorge). The exact area that I believe is the same river described Biblically concerning the Tarsus and the story of Saint Paul’s (Saul of Tarsus) hometown near the Cydnus River now called the river Tarraios, which was also located near the ancient village of Samaria, midway down the gorge. Mt. Tarsus would be the beautiful White Mountains.

The river Tarraios dries up in summer but floods in winter, runs the length of the gorge and its mouth is at Agia Roumeli, formerly Tarra.

The recent photo below is from the lower part of the necropolis of Tara just above a rare “black sand beach” looking towards the Libyan sea.


What made the school of Tarsus different from other areas of the world according to Strabo was the fact that the entire student body was composed almost entirely of natives, who, after finishing their course, usually went abroad to complete their education and in most cases did not return home. Whereas in most universities, the students were mainly foreigners, and the natives did not show the same great love of learning.

In fact, Strabo emphatically states that Rome is full of Tarsians and Alexandrians and I believe they played a very important role in the formation of the early Roman Empire. 

Among the famous learned men and philosophers were Stoics Antipater, Archedemus, Nestor, Athenodorus surnamed Cordylion, the friend and companion of the younger Marcus Cato also known as Athenodorus Cananites, (called Canaanites after the village of his birth), who was the tutor and friend of the first Roman emperor, Augustus Caesar and is credited with reforming the Tarsian constitution. Other philosophers of Tarsus were Nestor, a representative of the Academy, and tutor of Marcellus, Augustus’ nephew and destined successor, and of Tiberius, Plutiades and Diogenes;

Tara was the birthplace of philosophers, strategists, writers, and athletes such as Aristoxenus, Livius Andronicus, Heracleides, Iccus, Cleinias, Leonidas, Lysis, Sosibius, and Lucillus of Tarrha (or Loukillos). He commented on the Argonauts of Apollonius of Rhodes. In mythology, Chrysothemis, was the victor of the Pythian Games at Delphi and was also the son and poet of the High Priest Carmanor, who was from Tara as well.

Among the famous learned men and philosophers from Tara, Crete were people such as Paul the Apostle, Stoics Antipater, Archedemus, Nestor, Athenodorus surnamed Cordylion, the friend and companion of the younger Marcus Cato also known as Athenodorus Cananites, (called Canaanites after the village of his birth), who was the tutor and friend of the first Roman emperor, Augustus Caesar and is credited with reforming the Tarsian constitution. Other philosophers of Tarsus were Nestor, tutor of Augustus’ nephew, Marcellus.

It was distinguished for the culture of Greek literature and philosophy, so it was the rival of Athens and Alexandria. People such as Paul the Apostle were born here and it was the location of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra that had occurred a long ago and was also home to the infamous, Cleopatra’s Gate.

Some of the most famous people I have discovered from Tara AKA Tarsus were the highly influential Greek neo-Pythagorean philosopher, Apollonius of Tyana, who was educated at Tarsus in the Temple of Aesculapius and also lived and died on Crete. Apollonius was a student of the Pythagoreans whose teachings were held in the highest esteem and influenced both scientific thought and occultism for many centuries after his death.

Over the last 2,000 years, various legends told over this time about Apollonius in many different languages and by a plethora of authors tell of many places he had allegedly visited that all are spelled in a similar fashion and sound the same like Tarsus, Tarsia, Tyana and Tyre. Stories like Apollonius sails from Tyre to Antioch. In Tarsia, He is carried by pirates from Tarsus; Apollonius returns to Tyre; Apollonius sails to Tarsus; Apollonius returns from Egypt to Tarsus . D. Apollonius sails to Cyrene, etc…

Another famous Taraseian from Tara was Archytas, a Pythagorean and ruler of Tara for seven years. He was an esteemed member of the Pythagorean school for his wisdom and virtues and was famous for being the founder of mathematical mechanics, as well as a good friend of Plato. The Seventh Letter of Plato asserts that Archytas attempted to rescue Plato during his difficulties with the Greek Archon Dionysius II of Syracuse.

I also find it interesting that many of these philosophers from Tara, Tarsus, or whatever you want to call the town were also resemble one another as if they were related by blood.

Under the rulership of Archytas, the government of Tara reached the apex of its development with a political hegemony over the other Greek colonies of Magna Graecia in southern Italy and one of the largest cities in the world, with a population estimated up to 300,000 people. Strabo associates Archytas with the flourishing of Tara and also its military might. In his honor, a crater on the Moon is named Archytas, and just to the southwest, we find his friend, the dark-floored crater Plato.

Due to its history and importance, the city of Tara had become one of the most esteemed and powerful cities in all the Mediterranean from 500 BC onwards which is reflected by its historical alliances and foreign policy. Tara belonged to a federation of Cretan cities composed of Lissos, Syia, Pikilassos, Hyrtakina, and Elyrus (Elyros) who are knowns as the Elyrians (Illyrians). Pausanias tells us how the people of Elyrus in Crete sent a bronze goat to Delphi; “ The goat is suckling the infants Phylacides and Philander, who were said to be the children of Apollo by a nymph Acacallis, whom Apollo visited in the city of Tara.

In later times, we find Tara signed an important agreement cementing an alliance with the neighboring Cretan City of Pergamon through King Eumenes II in 170 under the Attalid dynasty. Eumenes (B.C. 196-159) of Pergamon was the son of Cretan King and friend of the Romans, Attalus (B.C. 241-197).

In the Scripture, the original city of Pergamon is also known as the throne of Satan via Revelation 2:12 “Pergamos – Where Satan’s throne is.” Pergamon was originally located on the Island of Crete approximately 18 miles inland from the west coast. It lies opposite the Island of Dia (Cos, Chios, Patmos) to the west of Mount Ida, and Knossos was as well. It was said to be on the river Caicus almost halfway between Smyrna on the south, and Troy on the north. Pliny places it between the city of Sidonia (Cydonia) and the city of Kiasmos.

Pergamon was also home to the Temple of the ancient Greek God of wisdom, medicine, healing, rejuvenation, and physicians known as ‘Asclepius’. His temple was known as the Sanctuary of Asclepius which was one of the most famous schools, libraries, and medical centers (hospitals) ever known in the ancient world.

Under Augustus Caesar’s rule, the first imperial cult was established in the province of Asia was in Pergamon. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province and the local aristocracy continued to flourish in power up until the 1st century AD.

Lawyer and author, Robert Pashley was the first modern archaeologist to find the location of the city of Tara and investigate it. Pashley was one of the modern foremost experts of Cretan culture in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the also first person to discover the location of the ancient buried city of Sidonia (Cydonia). At the time of Pashley’s arrival on Crete, it was under Muslim-Egyptian administration so I would assume much of this early history and Biblical secrets he discovered were suppressed. He published his Great Work in the two-volume book, “Travels in Crete.”

The appellation of “tar” to their founding and sister cities was preserved in the names of ancient places such as Tara in Ireland. Home to the Hill of Tara, which is an ancient ceremonial and burial site near Skryne in County Meath, Ireland. According to ancient tradition, it was the inauguration place and seat of the High Kings of Ireland. It was here you find like on Crete, learned me who are known as the Ulam (Ollam) of Mulah and their king who founded Ireland’s first University.

King Ollam is mentioned in the “Annals of the Four Masters,”, as a sage and law-giver and was said to have founded a College of Ollams at Tara, or a ‘School of the Prophets” who ordered the sacred records to be kept at Tara. “These form the basis of ancient Irish history.” (Annals of the Four Masters, note p. 297.) There was actually a famous college at Tara called the Mur Ollam han, or the House of the Learned Four Masters.

In England, we find the city of Tarring, now West Tarring, in West Sussex, which was founded by King Athelstan who is credited with starting Freemasonry in England.  When the Normans conquered the country, they took over the governorship and this is reflected in history as being given by the King to the archbishops of Canterbury in the 10th century. Another sister city to Tara, Crete is the coastal city of Tarifa, Spain, and the most famous of all is the ancient city of Rome once called Tarentum and today is known as Terracina, Italy, which is said to have been built by colonists from Crete to name a few.

Early Greek tradition relates that when Taras was shipwrecked, his father rescued him by sending a dolphin which he rode to traverse the sea from the promontory of Taenarum to the south of Italy. Brought ashore, Taras founded Tarentum which was named in his honor. According to Pausanias, he was worshiped as a hero who named both the city and the river, Taras after himself.

According to the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, dated over 100 years ago in1898;

“The town of Tarentum consisted of two parts, viz.: a peninsula or island at the entrance of the harbor, and a town on the mainland, which was connected with the island by means of a bridge. On the northwest corner of the island, close to the entrance of the harbor, was the citadel: the principal part of the town was situated southwest of the isthmus.

The modern town is confined to the island or peninsula on which the citadel stood. The neighborhood of Tarentum produced the best wool in all of Italy and was also celebrated for its excellent wine, figs, pears, and other fruits. Its purple dye was also much valued in antiquity.”

A place that I believe was a sister city to Tara, Crete, and also the exact location of the Temple of Jupiter Anxur (Italian: Tempio di Giove Anxur).

The modern name of Tara I have also found is associated with the Biblical Tarsus, which is famously associated as the native place of the Apostle Paul (Acts 22:3) who is also known as Saul of Tarsus, which he claimed was “a citizen of no mean city” (Acts 9:11Acts 21:39). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about 6-10 miles north of the Mediterranean. Like Tara, it was distinguished for the culture of Greek literature and philosophy, so it was considered the rival of Athens and Alexandria.

Paul, I have connected with Saul and Tyre. He is called the first King of the United Kingdoms of Judah and Israel and he can also be connected to the first King of Tyre (Byblos or Giblim) whose name was Abibalus who I have tied to Hiram Abiff that then connects us to Obed or Obediah of whom both are famously known as “The Widow’s Son.”

Tara may also be associated with the coastal village of Aghios Pavlos (“Saint Paul”) in whose name a small church was built there (first in Byzantine times, then restored in the 1960s), which is a natural port near the southernmost point of Crete south of Rethymnon city, west of Agia Galini, and very close to the tip of Cape Melissa. Some Biblical scholars state that Apostle Paul, landed at the harbor so-called Fair Havens here to preach the Christian faith in Crete.

This makes perfect sense given the fact that Aghios Pavlos has one of the most sheltered bays on the coast with some of the most beautiful green and deep waters you have ever seen. The harbor and beaches here are also well-hidden and peaceful, where just above the pristine beach, you can witness for yourself the small old church of Saint Paul. The beach here has fine dark-colored pebbles with crystal clear blue waters. This area is specially protected from the winds by the high mountainous massive on the west and the north.

During this time of Pompey (67 BC), Tarsus was made the capital over the Roman province of Cilicia, and who we know now as the Jews began to receive Roman citizenship. Antony, who controlled the eastern provinces, declared the city free in 42 BC. Tarsus continued to receive special privileges under Augustus, who exempted the city from imperial taxation because Athenodorus, his teacher and friend, was a Tarsian. Tarsus grew into a cultural and intellectual center. Stoic philosophers like Athenodorus, Zeno, Antipater, and Nestor lived in the city in the 1st century AD.

The gate of Cleopatra, also called the “Sea Gate,” still stands today, but poorly restored and in Turkey like many of Crete’s old stones. Legend has it that Cleopatra sailed up the Cydnus river disguised as Aphrodite and came through this famous gate in 41 BC on her way to meet Mark Antony. Saint Paul had witnessed this event.

You will often find the name Tarsus associated with another name for Crete which is Cappadocia. These various name changes were done I believe to conceal the history and identity of the island from its descendants who were more often than not a serious political problem for whomever ruler ruled the region.

It was said that Julius Caesar passed through the city in 47 B.C. on his march from Egypt to Pontus, and was enthusiastically received. Later with the assignment of the East to Antony’s administration, Tarsus received the position of an independent and duty-free state (civitas libera et immunis) and became for some time Antony’s place of residence. This privileged status was confirmed by Pompey, Caesar, Antony and Augustus granted that honor for themselves and, as a consequence, for their descendants.

In reward for its exertions and sacrifices during the civil wars of Rome, Tarsus was made a free city of Augustus.

the biblical name, Ataroth, one of the stations on the southern frontier of the tribe of Ephraim, close to the territory of the tribe of Benjamin ( Josh . xvi . 5 , 7 ; xviii . 13 ; and xxi . 18 ). Their emblem is the wolf who according to ancient Roman mythology, a she-wolf was responsible for helping rear up the founders of Rome, Romulus, and Remus which is symbolized with the Capitoline Wolf (Italian: Lupa Capitolina), which is the main symbol of Rome.

In the 7th century A.D., the Muslims conquered the island of Crete forcing the Byzantine rulers and Cretan natives to flee and in the 17 century, it fell again, this time into the hands of the Turks.

Finally, it was from the ancient shores of Tara/Tarsus that we know of today as Agia Roumeli that the Greek Government with King George left for Egypt in May 1941, after the fall of Crete to the Germans.

Pin It on Pinterest